Research Papers

Selection of research papers and reports on the Three Seas Initiative.


The publication "Three Seas Initiative: Mapping National Perspectives"
Latvian Institute of International Affairs

The publication “Three Seas Initiative: Mapping National Perspectives” offers a collection of articles that discuss priorities of the Initiative from the countries’ perspective. Each of the article identifies both challenges and opportunities to the members participating in the Initiative. The publication provides the reader with an insight into the diversified views on the Initiative, the main shortcomings and the future of the Initiative as envisaged by international experts. Noting the changing international environment caused by the Russia’s aggression in Ukraine in 2022, publication is also addressing how the recent security developments affects the Initiative. 


The Three Seas Initiative by the U.S Congressional Research Service
Congressional Research Service

Short overview of the Three Seas Initiative by the U.S. Congressional Research Service. Also discusses the Initiative’s alignment with the goals of Congress.


The Three Seas Initiative and its Economic and Geopolitical Effect on the European Union and Central and Eastern Europe
Grzegorz Zbińkowski, The Institute of Political Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

Analysis of the Three Seas Initiative, whose participating countries (except Austria) treat it as a method of: a)reducing their dependence on crude oil and natural gas imports from Russia, thus increasing their energy security; b) accelerated filling of the persisting civilisation gap between the initiative participants and more developed EU countries owing to the improved quality and maturity of the transport and digital North‑South infrastructure; and c)the actual implementation of the “vision of a Europe whole, free and at peace.”

Securing the Digital DNA. The Three Seas Region
The Kosciuszko Institute: Izabela Albrycht, Wioletta Brzęcka, Faustine Felici, Agnieszka Konkel, Kamil Mikulski, Robert Siudak, Joanna Świątkowska, PhD

To analyse the potential of the Three Seas Region the authors conducted PESTLE analysis which they present in the second part of the report. Based on the cross-sectoral research focused on six main factors: Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental they concluded as follows. On the one hand, the region is particularly exposed to hybrid, including digital, threats as well as geopolitical shifts and political turbulences, on the other, that Three Seas economies and societies hum with potential which, as long as the positive development tendencies already visible are supported, can be used to follow the policy of ongoing secure economic growth in the era of a new digital world.

When deciding to prioritise cybersecurity sector development, the region’s countries should consider a range of factors and circumstances summed up in the key recommendations.

The Three Seas Initiative, a New Project at the Heart of European and Global Geopolitical Rivalries
Pierre-Emmanuel Thomann. Yearbook of the Institute of East-Central Europe, vol. 17 (2019), no. 3, pp. 31-63.

The objective of this paper is to show the geopolitical dimension of the Three Seas Initiative from a French point of view. The author presents the Three Seas Initiative implementation process, characterises Poland’s rivalry with Germany and Russia in a historical context, emphasizes the important role of Germany in the entire project, and reviews Russia’s attitude towards the region.


The Three Seas Initiative as a Political Challenge for the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe
Marek Górka, Political Science Department, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland 

This study explores the background of the Three Seas Initiative and highlights both the diverging interests of the countries and their common predicament.

The Three Seas Initiative: geographical determinants, geopolitical foundations, and prospective challenges
Petar Kurecic, University of North Croatia

It is the main intention of this paper to study the geographical determinants, geopolitical foundations, and the contemporary motives and goals of the Initiative, as well as the Initiative’s role in the geopolitical relations of the U.S./EU core states/Russia triangle.

The Digital 3 Seas Initiative: A Call for a Cyber Upgrade of Regional Cooperation
The Kosciuszko Institute

The authors of this White Paper call for a range of activities aimed at building digital cooperation in Central and Eastern Europe under the name of the Digital 3 Seas Initiative.
The Digital 3 Seas Initiative. Mapping the challenges to overcome
Izabela Albrycht, Krševan Antun Dujmović, Anushka Kaushik, Agnieszka Konkel, Iulian Popa, Michał Pilc, Marta Przywała, Ildikó Voller Szenci, Barbara Sztokfisz with Geopolitics and the CEE Region, by Edward Lucas
Editors: Agnieszka Konkel, Marta Przywała

The report should be considered as a continuation of the Kosciuszko Institute’s White
Paper The Digital 3 Seas Initiative: A Call for a Cyber Upgrade of Regional Cooperation released in June 2018. In order for the report to present as wide range of viewpoints as possible, the representatives of 5 out of 12 Three Seas countries (Croatia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia), including think tanks and experts, were asked to participate in the creation of the Roadmap. The chapters reflect the standpoints of several authors from these countries.

The chapters also give an outline of the current state of play, seen from the perspective of both the Three Seas region and the EU. Each chapter ends with  recommendations for the Digital Three Seas countries providing specific guidance for the Three Seas countries and their allies. 

Report: Perspectives for infrastructural investments in the Three Seas region
Report by: SpotData
Partner: Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego

By combining characteristics of emerging and developed markets, the Three Seas region has become a unique and attractive investment location. Three Seas countries boast higher GDP growth than developed markets, and, at the same time, have much higher stability indicators than the average emerging market nation.

The Three Seas Initiative Summit: European Commission Investments in Connectivity Projects
European Commission

The European Commission is a major contributor to investments in connectivity and infrastructure development in the Three Seas region. The projects listed in this report are highlights of the EU’s contribution to economic development across the region.